1-Chromosomal problems: Most often a miscarriage occurs due to some chromosomal problem. Chromosomes are made up of DNA which is responsible for the overall body system ranging from color of the baby to his or her cell structure. In a successful pregnancy a fetus requires 46 chromosomes in which 23 come from the sperm and 23 from the egg. Sometimes this combination of chromosomes can go wrong and hence leads to a miscarriage. Early miscarriages occur most often due to chromosomal problems.
2- Placental problems: Fetus gets its blood from the mother through a duct called placenta. If placenta is not developed well or if it could not supply enough blood to the fetus it can result in miscarriage. Bleeding at the early stage of pregnancy is a sign of placenta being not supplying blood to the fetus.
3- Age: Age plays an important role in pregnancy. An appropriate age is an essential factor in determining the outcome of a pregnancy. A recent research shows that teenager females are more likely to face miscarriage as compare to those of age between 21 and 40. Pregnancy at a younger age is more likely to end in miscarriage because the fetus does not get enough energy from the mother as her body itself needs a great amount of energy at that age. Similarly, women older than 40 are also more likely to face miscarriage as the mother`s body cannot fulfill the required energy of the fetus at the age above 40.
4- Obesity: Obesity of the mother can also cause miscarriage. Being an obese the blood supply of the mother to the fetus is rich cholesterol which provides the fetus an overdose of cholesterol and hence results in a miscarriage.
5- Smoking and use of other drugs– Smoking can be fatal for the fetus as it gets its air from the lung of the mother. Smoking can cause miscarriage at the very beginning of pregnancy. Similarly, use of other drugs can also have detrimental effect on pregnancy and cause termination of it even with an intake of a little amount.
6- Diabetes and high blood pressure: If not kept under control, maternal diabetes and high blood pressure can also lead to miscarriage. High blood pressure especially hypertension can interrupt blood supply to the fetus which is certainly fatal for the fetus.
7- Sexually transmitted infections: Most of the times presence of sexually transmitted infections prove to be detrimental for the survivor of the fetus. Bacteria and viruses which have caused the infections pollute the fetus and damage its membrane which further results in miscarriage. Thus, any kind of such infections must be tackled before pregnancy.
8- Depression: Emotional shock, grief, or any kind of mental stress can also cause miscarriage. Over stress and extreme trauma or emotional shock are extremely risky for the fetus. Additionally, sometimes taking sedative medications may further complicate risks for the fetus.
9- Heavy physical activities: carrying out heavy physical activities like, lifting heavy objects, falling off, and not taking proper rest may also cause miscarriage.
10- Previous abortions: Abortion may cause severe damages to some the organs which are vital for the fetus. This can cause either infertility or result in miscarriage.
Conclusion: While some of the risk factors of miscarriages are unavoidable there still exist some others which can be handled before pregnancy to avoided miscarriage. Causes of miscarriages are numerous but their chances can surely be minimized with a healthy life-style.
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